Part 4: Specific support needs and concerns 172 National Guidance for Child Protection in Scotland 2021 Version 1.0 September 2021 4.232 When parents find that their child has acted in a way that has sexually harmed others, they may experience feelings of shock, denial, confusion, guilt, shame, anger, isolation and powerlessness. Feelings of hurt, love and anger can coincide with conflicted priorities, particularly when the victim of harm is a member of their own family. Parents have a critical role in promoting safety and helping their child move on from behaviour that may harm themselves or others. Parents often need sensitive support to help them understand what has occurred and how to work together. 4.233 Every child’s plan should be holistic and tailored to need and context. Risk assessment and management measures and interventions are essential, but should be balanced with nurture and encouragement. Plans should build on those skills and relationships that promote resilience. The GIRFEC Wellbeing indicators apply. In addition, each child should receive individual attention within a systemic approach, so that they become more able to: • understand their feelings and behaviour • meet their own needs in a socially acceptable way • develop skills in the context of home, school and community • enjoy positive relationships at home, at school and in the community • encourage and sustain longer-term change, anticipating stresses Resources and References – Harmful sexual behaviour by children Child protection in the digital environment/online safety 4.234 The internet, online services and associated technologies are an integral part of our everyday lives, and particularly so for our children and young people. These offer many opportunities that support learning, engagement with others and, crucially, helping children and young people to find the right support and help. We want all children and young people to be empowered and confident to access the digital world creatively and fearlessly. Article 17(e) of the UNCRC expects public authorities to develop appropriate guidelines to protect children from information and material injurious to his or her wellbeing. Protecting them from online harm is a challenge in a fast changing media environment. A sense of anonymity and disinhibition can escalate risks. Signposts to key legislation in relation to sexual offences are provided above in the section on child sexual abuse. 4.235 Definition. Online child abuse is any type of abuse that occurs in the digital environment and the internet, facilitated through technology and devices such as computers, tablets, mobile phones, gaming devices and other online-enabled devices. 4.236 If abusive content is recorded, uploaded or shared by others online, there is a risk of the on-going experience of abuse. 4.237 Online abuse can include online bullying; emotional abuse and blackmail; sharing of intimate images; grooming behaviour; coercion and preparatory behaviour for abuse including radicalisation; child sexual abuse and sexual exploitation as described above. Spyware which enables monitoring and tracking of activity on devices and offline locations may be used abusively. Perpetrators may be strangers, family members, friends or professionals.