Part 4: Specific support needs and concerns 210 National Guidance for Child Protection in Scotland 2021 Version 1.0 September 2021 4.474 Interpreting. When interpreting services are required, planning of investigative processes will take extra time and care. The Scottish Refugee Council, in partnership with five local authorities, has developed guidance which includes use of interpreters (2019). Practical headlines may be summarised: • develop interpreting and translation policy and procedures • train practitioners in work with interpreters • never use friends/family members as interpreters in a formal context • never place responsibility for interpreting for parents upon children • offer people the option to request an interpreter of the same (or a different) gender for their appointments • brief and de-brief interpreters on expectations, procedures and remit • recognise that service providers have a duty of care to all parties • note that interpreters may need support after distressing interpreting sessions 4.475 Child abuse linked to faith and belief. There may be tensions between a parent’s beliefs and Scottish laws, for instance, in relation to physical chastisement. Where specific practices linked to tradition, faith or belief are harmful or used to justify behaviour that is abusive, then services must not hesitate to engage in order to understand and prevent further harm. Female genital mutilation is an example of a traditional practice which is a criminal offence in Scotland and will be treated as child abuse. 4.476 Practitioners may need additional training in order to work with child abuse linked to faith or belief. It can be advantageous when statutory and faith‐based communities engage in dialogue in order to build trust, co-produce policy and share good practice. Resources and References – Cultural and faith communities Children and families in the defence community 4.477 There are nearly 10,500 men and women in the Regular Armed Forces and 4,000 Ministry of Defence (MOD) civilians from across the UK and beyond working in Scotland. This does not include reservists – a significant and connected network of personnel and families with feet in both civilian and service life. They and their families make a vital contribution to national and international security, and they are a vital social force within the Scottish economy and local communities. 4.478 There are communities that exist ‘within’ communities. For example, services, bases, units and regiments have networks and identities of their own. While service families may experience the full range of risks and concerns apparent in the civilian population, the resilience of and pressures upon service children and families can have a distinctive dynamic. Children may have experienced many changes of school. 4.479 Practitioners should seek to understand how this cultural context plays a part in the experience of each child and their family if a child protection concern arises. Parental or sibling deployment (and return home) can have an impact on children’s mental health. British service personnel and veterans’ health can be affected by pre-deployment stress, post-traumatic stress and re-integration stress following deployment or transition from service.