Appendices: Appendix A: Glossary of terms 216 National Guidance for Child Protection in Scotland 2021 Version 1.0 September 2021 Appendices Appendix A: Glossary of terms Advocacy: A term used within different contexts in this Guidance. Listening to a child, or an adult who cares for the child and working out with them how to represent their views, experiences and needs within assessment, planning and decision-making processes. The terms of some forms of advocacy are provided for in statute. Care and Risk Management (CARM): Processes which are applied when a child between the ages of 12 and 17 has been involved in behaviours which could cause serious harm to others. This includes sexual or violent behaviour which may cause serious harm. CARM processes are also applicable when an escalation of behaviours suggests that an incident of a seriously harmful nature may be imminent. Chief Officers Group: The collective expression for the Local Police Commander and Chief Executives of the local authority and NHS Board in each local area. Chief Officers are individually and collectively responsible for the leadership, direction and scrutiny of their respective child protection services and their Child Protection Committees. Child: Child protection processes within this Guidance relate to unborn babies and children and young people under the age of 18 years. (Part 1 seeks to summarise some of the relevant legal definitions of ‘child’ in Scotland, and the applicability of legislation relating to the protection of young adults). Child abuse and child neglect: Abuse and neglect are forms of maltreatment of a child. Somebody may abuse a child by inflicting, or by failing to prevent, harm to a child: • emotional abuse is persistent emotional neglect or ill treatment of a child causing severe and lasting adverse effects on the child’s emotional development. ‘Persistent’ means there is a continuous or intermittent pattern which has caused, or is likely to cause, significant harm • neglect consists in persistent failure to meet a child’s basic physical and/or psychological needs, which is likely to result in the serious impairment of the child’s health or development. There can also be single instances of neglectful behaviour that cause significant harm. Neglect can arise in the context of systemic stresses such as poverty, and is an indicator of support needs • physical abuse is the causing of physical harm to a child or young person • child sexual abuse is an act that involves a child under 16 in any activity for the sexual gratification of another, whether or not it is claimed that the child either consented or assented. For those who may be victims of sexual offences aged 16-17, child protection procedures should be considered; and must be applied when there is concern child about sexual exploitation or trafficking Child’s plan/Child Protection Plan: Where those working with the child and family have evidence to indicate that support across services may be required to meet the child’s wellbeing needs, a child’s plan is drawn up to co‑ordinate a single plan of action. This should be managed and reviewed through a single planning process, including a single meeting structure, even if the child is involved in several processes. The child’s plan will incorporate a Child Protection Plan if the criteria for registration are met, namely risk of significant harm requiring a multi-agency plan. The Child Protection Plan must focus on actions to reduce risk.